How Does the Microbiome Relate to Inflammatory Skin Diseases?
Studying the human microbiome, the collection of microorganisms that inhabit the human body, has allowed for advances in understanding the role of these microorganisms in disease and overall health. In addition, it has raised questions about whether manipulating the microbiome could result in expanded treatment options. Current research is underway to characterize the microbiome and create databanks of samples for future studies.
A recent review looked at the available research regarding evidences about gut and skin microbiome composition and functions, and any implications it may have for inflammatory skin diseases. The authors focused on the dialogue between microbes and the host and the resulting consequences of this dialogue for health and skin diseases. Through a review of the evidence, the authors describe the ways in which the microbiome interacts with human host by secretion of different metabolites that generate a continuous “crosstalk.”
The review examines studies that outline how shifts in microbiome composition may lead to changes in immune system reactivity and then to alter inflammatory disease development. There are a number of studies that make the link between these immune mechanisms and the skin diseases that result. Certain diseases such as psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa, atopic dermatitis, and acne, show similarities in the way that significant changes in skin and gut microbiome are associated with inflammation. The authors also review therapeutic manipulation of microbiome using pre and probiotics, antibiotics, and fecal transplants with respect to how they affect inflammatory skin diseases. They summarize the effectiveness of these strategies, many of which show significant promise for treatment.
The authors conclude that the evidence is strong that the microbiome plays a key role, and as we gain insight this knowledge may translate into diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive measures.